South Africa Lesotho Swaziland Namibia Botswana Zimbabwe Mozambique Angola Zambia Malawi Burundi Kenya Tanzania Seychelles Comoros Madagascar Reunion Mauritius Cape Town Johannesburg Mbabane Maseru Maputo Windhoek Gaborone Lusaka Harare Lilongwe Luanda Bujumbura Nairobi Dodoma Antananarivo

This interactive map is designed to provide SRHR-related data on countries in Eastern and Southern Africa, including the Indian Ocean island states.
Latest available statistics are given for eight indicators of SRHR, as described below. Sources of information are also shown. You can search the map by country and by category, simply by clicking on the map or the filter list below.
If you would like to update, add, correct or query information supplied in this map, you can do so by completing a short form here or contacting us at info@sexrightsafrica.net

Adolescent Pregnancy (15-19)

Pregnancy in females aged between 15 and 19 is considered to be adolescent pregnancy. Adolescent pregnancy accounts for 11% of births worldwide.

Sub-Saharan Africa has the highest rates of adolescent pregnancy. The context of adolescent pregnancy varies; it may be planned or unplanned. However, early pregnancy can be dangerous for the mother and the child. Adolescent mothers are at risk of anaemia, STIs, postpartum haemorrhage and mental health problems. Stillbirths and death are 50% higher in babies born to mothers younger than 20 years.

Adolescent girls in many communities have to withdraw from school, with extremely adverse effects on their lives. Low education levels are also associated with early childbearing. Delaying adolescent pregnancy often has social and economic benefits for the mother, child and broader society.

Sources:
http://www.who.int/maternal_child_adolescent/topics/maternal/adolescent_pregnancy/en/
http://www.unfpa.org/adolescent-pregnancy

Legal status of sex work

The legal status of sex work varies across the African continent. Many sex workers operate illegally and are a severely marginalised group. This puts them at risk of sexual violence, harassment, rape and the denial of health services. Amnesty International has called for a policy to protect the right of sex workers and there is a global movement to decriminalise sex work and to rather criminalise those who abuse and exploit sex workers.

In South Africa, sex work is illegal, however, research by the Sex Workers Education and Advocacy Taskforce (SWEAT) revealed an estimate of 153 000 operating sex workers. Sex workers and their clients are highly vulnerable to HIV. The equality of the human rights of sex workers need to be promoted to empower them.

Sources:
https://www.amnesty.org/en/latest/news/2015/08/sex-workers-rights-are-human-rights/
http://www.health-e.org.za/2015/01/14/report-estimating-size-sex-worker-population-south-africa/
http://www.who.int/hiv/topics/sex_work/about/en/

Access to safe and legal abortions

Compared to the global North and central and eastern Asia, most countries in the global South have restrictive abortion laws. Research has indicated that (legal) restrictions on abortions result in higher instances of illegal or unsafe abortion. There is also a proven link between unsafe abortions and maternal mortality.

The right to a safe and legal abortion is supported by many international treaties. Countries across the world are gradually liberalising their abortion laws but human rights and health agencies point out that there is still a lack of access to abortion services. Legal and safe abortion requires changes in law, in policy, in management of health services and support of practitioners, as well as changes in attitude.

Source: http://worldabortionlaws.com/about.html

Legalisation of same-sex marriage

Consensual same-sex relationships are criminalised in 76 countries. The Universal Declaration of Human Rights (UDHR) enshrines the rights to equality and non-discrimination. The criminalisation of same-sex relationships violates the right to privacy and freedom from discrimination which are protected under international law. In some countries, the wording of the law is vague and unclear. In Africa, the laws are often a legacy of colonial rule.

Research from the World Health Organization (WHO) and the United Nations Programme on HIV/AIDS shows that criminalisation also has an effect on access to public health.

Sources:
http://www.loc.gov/law/help/criminal-laws-on-homosexuality/african-nations-laws.php
https://www.unfe.org/system/unfe-43-UN_Fact_Sheets_-_FINAL_-_Criminalization_(1).pdf
http://www.cbc.ca/news2/interactives/map-same-sex-criminalization/

Practice of female genital mutilation

It has been estimated that 100 million to 140 million girls and women have been subjected to female genital mutilation (FGM). FGM is most common in sub-Saharan Africa and the Middle East.

FGM is an extreme human rights violation, causing extreme and prolonged physical and psychological pain and endangering the lives of millions. The girls subjected to this practice are at risk of prolonged bleeding, infection, infertility, pregnancy complications and death. In Africa, FGM is known to be practiced in Kenya, Tanzania and Zambia.

Given that FGM is a cultural practice, there have been arguments for medicalising FGM to make it safer. However, this does not address the human rights issues and the United Nations Populations Fund (UNFPA) says that there can still be serious health consequences, even in a sterile environment.

Source:
http://www.unfpa.org/resources/female-genital-mutilation-fgm-frequently-asked-questions

Rates of Gender-based Violence

Gender-based violence (GBV) includes: rape and sexual assault, domestic violence, exploitative sex, sex trafficking, harmful traditional practices and forced pregnancy or sterilisation. GBV can affect anyone but is more frequently directed at girls and women. Globally it is estimated that one in three women has experienced sexual or physical abuse once in their lifetime. In Africa, more than 45% of women have experienced physical and sexual violence, often by a male partner. Cases of violence against women go largely unreported.

Women who experience violence are twice as likely to be depressed, to have alcohol related problems, and to contract HIV or other sexually transmitted diseases. Other health problems linked to violence are unwanted pregnancies, abortion and low birth-weight babies.

GBV has a significant impact on public health as well as being a violation of human rights.

Source:
http://www.who.int/mediacentre/news/releases/2013/violence_against_women_20130620/en/

Maternal mortality rates

Maternal deaths occur as a result of the complications that arise during and following pregnancy and childbirth. The following account for nearly 75% of maternal deaths: severe bleeding, infections, high blood pressure, delivery complications and unsafe abortions. Malaria and AIDS during pregnancy also cause maternal deaths.

Approximately 800 women die from pregnancy/child-birth related complications every day, worldwide. More than half of these deaths occur in sub-Saharan Africa. Adolescent girls under the age of 15 are at a higher risk of maternal mortality.

Maternal deaths are preventable but women in poverty-stricken areas are unlikely to receive sufficient healthcare. Access to antenatal care and skilled health professionals are needed to prevent these deaths. Only 46% of women in low-income countries benefit from professional healthcare. Poverty, distance, lack of information, inadequate services and cultural practices are obstacles in women receiving life-saving health care.

Source:
http://www.who.int/mediacentre/factsheets/fs348/en/

Infant mortality rates

Infant mortality rates have declined significantly in sub-Saharan Africa. However, the risk of a child dying in infancy is still five times higher (55 per 1000 live births) in Africa than in Europe (10 per 1000 live births).

Infant mortality occurs as a result of nutrition, unsafe water, the availability of child and maternal services and the availability of medication and immunisation.

Sources:
http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/SP.DYN.IMRT.IN
http://www.who.int/gho/child_health/mortality/neonatal_infant_text/en/
https://www.wsws.org/en/articles/2008/01/mort-j31.html

Mapping SRHR in Africa

Adolescent fertility rate (births per 1, 000 women ages 15-19)

167

Adolescent fertility rate (births per 1, 000 women ages 15-19)

34

Adolescent fertility rate (births per 1, 000 women ages 15-19)

70

Adolescent fertility rate (births per 1, 000 women ages 15-19)

92

Adolescent fertility rate (births per 1, 000 women ages 15-19)

92

Adolescent fertility rate (births per 1, 000 women ages 15-19)

117

Adolescent fertility rate (births per 1, 000 women ages 15-19)

137

Adolescent fertility rate (births per 1, 000 women ages 15-19)

29

Adolescent fertility rate (births per 1, 000 women ages 15-19)

Adolescent fertility rate (births per 1, 000 women ages 15-19)

77

Adolescent fertility rate (births per 1, 000 women ages 15-19)

58

Adolescent fertility rate (births per 1, 000 women ages 15-19)

47

Adolescent fertility rate (births per 1, 000 women ages 15-19)

119

Adolescent fertility rate (births per 1, 000 women ages 15-19)

93

Adolescent fertility rate (births per 1, 000 women ages 15-19)

110

Protection of LGBTI rights

Imprisonment of up to 14 years

Protection of LGBTI rights

Imprisonment of up to 14 years

Protection of LGBTI rights

Imprisonment of up to 14 years

Protection of LGBTI rights

Imprisonment of up to 14 years

Protection of LGBTI rights

No specific legislation

Protection of LGBTI rights

Equal/almost equal substitute to marriage

Protection of LGBTI rights

No specific legislation

Protection of LGBTI rights

Imprisonment from 14 years to life

Protection of LGBTI rights

Recent decriminalisation of colonial anti-gay law

Protection of LGBTI rights

Imprisonment

Protection of LGBTI rights

Imprisonment from 14 years to life

Protection of LGBTI rights

Same-sex marriage is legal

Protection of LGBTI rights

Imprisonment from 14 years to life

Protection of LGBTI rights

Imprisonment from 14 years to life

Protection of LGBTI rights

Imprisonment of up to 14 years

Child marriages

Over 10% of girls married at 16 or younger

Child marriages

5-10% of girls married at 16 or younger

Child marriages

5-10% of girls married at 16 or younger

Child marriages

Over 10% of girls married at 16 or younger

Child marriages

5-10% of girls married at 16 or younger

Child marriages

Over 10% of girls married at 16 or younger

Child marriages

Over 10% of girls married at 16 or younger

Child marriages

Over 10% of girls married at 16 or younger

Less than 5% of girls married at 16 or younger

Less than 5% of girls married at 16 or younger

Child marriages

5-10% of girls married at 16 or younger

Child marriages

Over 10% of girls married at 16 or younger

Child marriages

Over 10% of girls married at 16 or younger

Child marriages

Over 10% of girls married at 16 or younger

Legal status of sex work

Illegal

Legal status of sex work

Illegal

Legal status of sex work

Illegal

Legal status of sex work

Illegal

Legal status of sex work

No Laws

Legal status of sex work

Legal

Legal status of sex work

Legal

Legal status of sex work

Illegal

Legal status of sex work

No Laws

Legal status of sex work

Legal

Legal status of sex work

Illegal

Legal status of sex work

Illegal

Legal status of sex work

Illegal

Legal status of sex work

Legal

Legal status of sex work

Illegal

Legal and average age of marriage

18; exceptionally for girls at 15 and boys at 16

Legal and average age of marriage

18

Legal and average age of marriage

18

Legal and average age of marriage

21

Legal and average age of marriage

18

Legal and average age of marriage

15

Legal and average age of marriage

18

Legal and average age of marriage

18

Legal and average age of marriage

18

Legal and average age of marriage

18

Legal and average age of marriage

15 for girls and 18 for boys

Legal and average age of marriage

16

Legal and average age of marriage

16 for girls and 18 for boys

Legalisation of same-sex marriage

No

Legalisation of same-sex marriage

No

Legalisation of same-sex marriage

No

Legalisation of same-sex marriage

No

Legalisation of same-sex marriage

No

Legalisation of same-sex marriage

No

Legalisation of same-sex marriage

No

Legalisation of same-sex marriage

No

Legalisation of same-sex marriage

No

Legalisation of same-sex marriage

No

Legalisation of same-sex marriage

No

Legalisation of same-sex marriage

No

Legalisation of same-sex marriage

Yes

Legalisation of same-sex marriage

No

Legalisation of same-sex marriage

No

Legalisation of same-sex marriage

No

Legalisation of same-sex marriage

No

Access to legal abortion

Prohibited unless to save the woman’s life.

Access to legal abortion

To preserve woman’s mental and physical health. Permitted in cases of rape, incest and foetal impairment.

Access to legal abortion

To preserve health.

Access to legal abortion

To preserve health.

Access to legal abortion

To preserve health. Permitted in cases of rape, incest and foetal impairment.

Access to legal abortion

Prohibited unless to save the woman’s life.

Access to legal abortion

Prohibited. Explicit exception is made to save the woman’s life.

Access to legal abortion

To preserve health. Exception to preserve woman’s mental health. Permitted in cases of rape, foetal impairment. Parental authorisation not required.

Access to legal abortion

To preserve health

Access to legal abortion

To preserve health. Also exception to preserve woman’s mental health. Permitted in cases of rape, incest and foetal impairment.

Access to legal abortion

To preserve life. Also exception to preserve woman’s mental health. Permitted in cases of rape, incest and foetal impairment.

Access to legal abortion

Without restriction as to reason.

Access to legal abortion

To preserve health. Also exception to preserve woman’s mental health. Permitted in cases of rape, incest and foetal impairment.

Access to legal abortion

Prohibited. Explicit exception is made to save the woman’s life.

Access to legal abortion

Socioeconomic health. Exception is also made in the case of foetal impairment.

Access to legal abortion

To preserve health. Exception is made in the case of rape, incest and foetal impairment. Legislation explicitly permits abortion only to protect physical health of woman.

Maternal mortality (per 100 000 live births)

460

Maternal mortality (per 100 000 live births)

170

Maternal mortality (per 100 000 live births)

350

Maternal mortality (per 100 000 live births)

400

Maternal mortality (per 100 000 live births)

490

Maternal mortality (per 100 000 live births)

440

Maternal mortality (per 100 000 live births)

510

Maternal mortality (per 100 000 live births)

73

Maternal mortality (per 100 000 live births)

480

Maternal mortality (per 100 000 live births)

130

Maternal mortality (per 100 000 live births)

No data given

Maternal mortality (per 100 000 live births)

140

Maternal mortality (per 100 000 live births)

310

Maternal mortality (per 100 000 live births)

410

Maternal mortality (per 100 000 live births)

280

Maternal mortality (per 100 000 live births)

470

Infant mortality rates (per 1000 live births)

96

Infant mortality rates (per 1000 live births)

35

Infant mortality rates (per 1000 live births)

36

Infant mortality rates (per 1000 live births)

69

Infant mortality rates (per 1000 live births)

36

Infant mortality rates (per 1000 live births)

43

Infant mortality rates (per 1000 live births)

12

Infant mortality rates (per 1000 live births)

57

Infant mortality rates (per 1000 live births)

33

Infant mortality rates (per 1000 live births)

12

Infant mortality rates (per 1000 live births)

34

Infant mortality rates (per 1000 live births)

45

Infant mortality rates (per 1000 live births)

35

Infant mortality rates (per 1000 live births)

35

Infant mortality rates (per 1000 live births)

43

Infant mortality rates (per 1000 live births)

47

Adolescent Fertility Rate (Births per 1,000 women ages 15-19)

30

Child marriages

Less than 5% of girls are married 16 or younger

Child marriages

Over 10% of girls married at 16 or younger

Access to legal abortion

To preserve health

Access to legal abortion

Prohibited. Explicit exception is made to save woman's life.

Adolescent fertility rate (births per 1, 000 women ages 15-19) Copy

167

Adolescent Fertility Rate (Births per 1,000 women ages 15-19)

121

Data sourced at Index mundi unless otherwise stated