07. Affordable and Clean Energy and SRHR
The link between Affordable and Clean Energy and SRHR is often overlooked but is of high importance, especially for girls and women. The goal of SDG 7 is to “ensure access to affordable, reliable, sustainable and modern energy for all” (United Nations, 2016). This goal links directly to SRHR because the provision of medicine, education, agricultural produce and sanitation all require affordable and clean energy. For example, achieving this would reduce the amount of time spent by girls and women to fetch wood, and the risks they face in doing so, including assault.
There are various conventions and laws that support affordable and clean energy as envisioned in SDG7. The sections relevant to SRHR can be found below.
You can see how SDG 7 – Affordable and Clean Energy – relates to the SRHR of different groups below.
Non-renewable energy consumption is directly linked to environmental degradation along with the rise in global warming and climate-related disasters. A global study by the International Federation of Red Cross and Red Crescent Societies (IFRC) indicates that women and children are 14 times more likely than men to die in disasters (Rutgers International, 2016: 1). Post-disaster response typically does not focus on sexual and reproductive health rights, there are increased barriers for women to access proper sanitation –putting them at risk of gynaecological infections, and medications and resources are limited during this time.
The use of renewable energy which is affordable and clean means that women - who usually bear the brunt of collecting fuel - are less exposed to sexual assault risk while out gathering fuel. As fuel collection is time consuming, the use of renewable energy sources affords women more time to pursue other activities. In addition to this, the negative health implications of using 'unclean' fuel can be mitigated through use of clean, renewable energy sources.
- Article 12.2 States Parties shall ensure to women appropriate services in connection with pregnancy, confinement and the post-natal period, granting free services where necessary, as well as adequate nutrition during pregnancy and lactation.
- Article 16.1 States Parties shall take all appropriate measures to eliminate discrimination against women in all matters relating to marriage and family relations.
- Article 12.0 The States Parties to the present Covenant recognize the right of everyone to the enjoyment of the highest attainable standard of physical and mental health. This includes the provision for the reduction of the stillbirth-rate and of infant mortality and for the healthy development of the child.
- Article 10.0 The States Parties to the present Covenant recognize that special protection should be accorded to mothers during a reasonable period before and after childbirth. During such period working mothers should be accorded paid leave or leave with adequate social security benefits. Absolute protection and assistance should be accorded to the family … particularly for its establishment and while it is responsible for the care and education of the child.
- Section 54 By 2005, reduce the proportion of infants infected with HIV by 20 per cent, and by 50 per cent by 2010, by: ensuring that 80 per cent of pregnant women accessing antenatal care have information, counselling and other HIV prevention services available to them, increasing the availability of and by providing access for HIV-infected women and babies to effective treatment to reduce mother-to-child transmission of HIV, as well as through effective interventions for HIV-infected women, including voluntary and confidential counselling and testing, access to treatment, especially anti-retroviral therapy and, where appropriate, breast milk substitutes and the provision of a continuum of care.
- Section 60 By 2005, implement measures to increase capacities of women and adolescent girls to protect themselves from the risk of HIV infection, principally through the provision of health care and health services, including sexual and reproductive health, and through prevention education that promotes gender equality within a culturally and gender sensitive framework;
- Section 61 By 2005, ensure development and accelerated implementation of national strategies for women’s empowerment, promotion and protection of women’s full enjoyment of all human rights and reduction of their vulnerability to HIV/AIDS through the elimination of all forms of discrimination, as well as all forms of violence against women and girls, including harmful traditional and customary practices, abuse, rape and other forms of sexual violence, battering and trafficking in women and girls.
Non-renewable energy consumption is directly linked to environmental degradation and the rise in global warming and climate-related disasters. A global study by the International Federation of Red Cross and Red Crescent Societies (IFRC) indicates that women and children are 14 times more likely than men to die in disasters (Rutgers International, 2016: 1). Post-disaster response typically does not focus on reproductive health rights which can pose risk to the health of newborn babies and young children. Additionally, there are increased barriers to sanitation and hygiene during disasters, which make children vulnerable to illness. Medications and services are also limited during this time, decreasing the overall health of children who require these resources.
- Article 1.1 States Parties shall prohibit the sale of children, child prostitution and child pornography as provided for by the present Protocol.
- Article 8.1 All state parties shall inform child victims of their rights, their role and the scope, timing and progress of the proceedings and of the disposition of their cases.
- Article 9.2 States Parties shall promote awareness in the public at large, including children, through information by all appropriate means, education and training, about the preventive measures and harmful effects of the offences referred to in the present Protocol.
- Article 10.3 States Parties shall promote the strengthening of international cooperation in order to address the root causes, such as poverty and underdevelopment, contributing to the vulnerability of children to the sale of children, child prostitution, child pornography and child sex tourism.
- Article 12.0 Each State Party shall ensure that its competent authorities proceed to a prompt and impartial investigation, wherever there is reasonable ground to believe that an act of torture has been committed in any territory under its jurisdiction.
- Article 13.0 Each State Party shall ensure that any individual who alleges he has been subjected to torture in any territory under its jurisdiction has the right to complain to, and to have his case promptly and impartially examined by, its competent authorities. Steps shall be taken to ensure that the complainant and witnesses are protected against all ill-treatment or intimidation as a consequence of his complaint or any evidence given.
- Article 14.1 Each State Party shall ensure in its legal system that the victim of an act of torture obtains redress and has an enforceable right to fair and adequate compensation, including the means for as full rehabilitation as possible.
- Article 10.0 Special measures of protection and assistance should be taken on behalf of all children and young persons without any discrimination for reasons of parentage or other conditions. Children and young persons should be protected from economic and social exploitation.
- Article 13.2 Secondary education in its different forms, including technical and vocational secondary education, shall be made generally available and accessible to all by every appropriate means, and in particular by the progressive introduction of free education.
- Section 65 By 2003, develop and by 2005 implement national policies and strategies to: build and strengthen governmental, family and community capacities to provide a supportive environment for orphans and girls and boys infected and affected by HIV/AIDS including by providing appropriate counselling and psycho-social support; ensuring their enrolment in school and access to shelter, good nutrition, health and social services on an equal basis with other children; to protect orphans and vulnerable children from all forms of abuse, violence, exploitation, discrimination, trafficking and loss of inheritance.
- Section 67 Urge the international community, particularly donor countries, civil society, as well as the private sector to complement effectively national programmes to support programmes for children orphaned or made vulnerable by HIV/AIDS in affected regions, in countries at high risk and to direct special assistance to sub-Saharan Africa;
Every Woman Every Child, 2016. “The Global Strategy for Women’s, Children’s and Adolescents’ Health (2016-2030)”. Global Strategy Report. 1-108.